Dyop® Vision Test Basics
Vision is a dynamic process which enables us to eat rather than be eaten. The photoreceptors in the back of the retina use the vibratory motion of the visual saccades to refresh their response which keeps the image autonomic and dynamic.
An “optotype” is a visual target used for measuring vision. A Dyop® (short for dynamic optotype) is a spinning segmented ring whose Black/White segments and gaps provides a strobic stimulus to the photoreceptors and can be used as a target for measuring visual acuity and refractions. The smallest diameter Dyop ring detected as spinning is the 20/20 (or 6/6) visual acuity endpoint optimum. As a result, a Dyop functions much as a visual equivalent of an audio tuning fork with an optimum photoreceptor stimulus refresh rate of 0.33 arc minutes squared per second.
Item 1 – the visual angular movement/velocity for the strobic contrast response (40 RPM)
Item 2 – a moving segmented 0.54 arc minute squared visual arc/area (MAR) for dynamically stimulating 20 retina cell clusters with motion
Item 3 – retinal cell clusters
Item 4 – examples of static historical optotypes
Item 5 – the static minimum 1.0 arc minute squared angle/arc/area (MAR) of resolution/recognition for a historical optotype for 40 retina cell clusters.
Types of Optotypes
Historically acuity measurement was based on the concept of Resolution Acuity (the ability to detect the separation of two points such as stars) or Recognition Acuity (the ability to identify an array of European letters as devised in 1862 by Dr. Herman Snellen). However, static optotypes counter the effectiveness of the saccades and deplete the refresh of the photoreceptors. Because a Dyop resonates with the vibrations of the saccades, it creates a much more precise and consistent concept of Resonance Acuity
The Adult Dyop Test has two identical diameter Dyop rings near the center of the display with only one ring as spinning. The Children’s Dyop Test has two peripheral Dyops with only one ring as spinning. The ring diameters are identical and the visual acuity endpoint is the diameter of the smallest Dyop ring which was detected as spinning. To detect false positives the subject is asked whether the spinning ring was the left ring or the right ring, or whether that ring was spinning clockwise or counter-clockwise.
The Infant Dyop Test has only ONE peripheral Black segmented Dyop on a White background which alternates its peripheral location as the Dyop diameter, or spin direction, changes. Because of the preferential tendency for motion detection, the Infant Test and the Children’s Test can both use the motion of the subjects head and/or eyes to track the far right side or the far left side of the monitor as the peripheral location of the spinning Dyop.
| || || || |
Adult Dyop Test
Children’s Dyop Test
Infant Dyop Test
Using remote access software such as AnyDesk also allows acuity testing to be done successfully regardless of the differences in the computer operating system or distance between the subject and the examiner. Color acuity testing may also be done to detect the potential for symptoms of dyslexia, migraines, or epilepsy.
The net advantage of Dyop acuity is that it is six times as precise as Snellen testing, with one-sixth the variance, and three to four times the efficiency of Snellen testing as to acuity and refraction measurement. A Dyop retains those advantages regardless of the age, culture, or relative lack of literacy of the subject being evaluated. A Dyop can be used to measure acuity in color, and a Dyop can be used for measurement of less developed acuity systems such as that of an infant.